In this article, Dr. Sandeep Nayak talks about bone marrow transplants, who needs them, and its types. Dr. Sandeep Nayak is one of the best oncologists in India.
He has been a pioneer in the field of oncology.
Bone marrow transplant is a life saving treatment for some people but with little knowledge on the topic people often don’t know whether or not to undergo the treatment. This article will help you learn about bone marrow transplant.
below we’ll see what a bone marrow transplant is,
What is a bone marrow transplant?
First, let us see what bone marrow is – bone marrow is a soft and spongy material found inside the bones. The purpose of the bone marrow is to produce red blood cells (carries oxygen), white blood cells (which prevent infection), and platelets (which control bleeding). Bone marrow also turns fat into energy when needed, says Dr. Sandeep Nayak, best oncologist in India.
There are two types of Bone marrow which include,
- Red bone marrow: The stem cells in the red bone marrow produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
- Yellow blood cells: The stem cells in the yellow bone marrow store fat for energy, and develop bone, cartilage, muscles, and fat cells in the body.
Overall, bone marrow is a vital part of the human body, which keeps the body functioning by producing healthy blood cells. Any diseases or conditions that affect the bone marrow can be fatal and need immediate treatment.
A bone marrow transplant is a procedure where your body is infused with healthy blood-forming cells to replace the diseased bone marrow.
Who needs a bone marrow transplant?
- Acute/Chronic Leukemia: Leukemia is a type of blood cancer that begins in the bone marrow, in which the number of blood cells grows rapidly and abnormally.
- Hodgin’s lymphoma: is a type of cancer that affects the body’s lymphatic system, where white blood cells grow abnormally, causing swollen lymph nodes throughout the body.
- Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia: This rare kind of cancer spreads slowly in the body. It happens when the white blood cells (lymphocytes) start to grow out of control.
- Multiple myeloma: Plasma cells are a type of white blood. Healthy plasma cells help to fight infection. In multiple myeloma, the cancerous plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow leaving out the healthy plasma cells.
- Aplastic anemia: Aplastic anemia is a rare disease in which the stem cells in the bone marrow stop producing sufficient new blood cells.
- Amyloidosis: Amyloidosis is an abnormal protein formed in the bone marrow and deposited in any tissue or organs in the body. This is a rare and severe illness.
- Myelofibrosis: is a rare type of blood cancer that starts in the bone marrow. This happens when scar tissue (fibrosis) builds up in the bone marrow; because of this, bone marrow cannot produce sufficient blood cells.
- Sarcoma: Sarcoma is a type of cancer that develops in the soft tissues and bones.
You might need a bone marrow transplant if you have any autoimmune diseases like lupus.
Types of a bone marrow transplant
A bone marrow transplant is a procedure that is performed to replace the affected cells with healthy cells. Sometimes before a bone marrow transplant, intensive treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation are done on the patient, says Dr Sandeep Nayak, best oncologist in India.
There are three types of bone marrow transplants.
1. Autologous bone marrow transplant
In this transplant, the donor is the patient itself. Stem cells are removed, frozen, and then injected into the patient again after intensive treatment (chemotherapy or radiation therapy). This transplant is also known as a rescue transplant.
2. Allogeneic bone marrow transplant
In this transplant, the stem cells are taken from another person (donor). Tests are done to see whether the donor is a perfect match for you. The donor’s genetics must be similar to the patient’s genetics. Parents and siblings are good matches for this transplant.
3. Umbilical cord blood transplant
In this transplant, stem cells are removed from the baby’s umbilical cord after birth, frozen, and kept in store for the future.
Bone marrow transplant is a life-saving treatment for some people, especially those with cancer.
Dr. Sandeep Nayak, best oncologist in India says that if you are diagnosed with any disease that needs a bone marrow transplant, you should not panic- instead, try to shift your focus to what makes you happy. Spend time with your friend’s ad families and live your life as you always did.